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Happy International day of Happiness


☀️ Do more of what makes you Happy. Start your day with Happiness and Gratitude. Established by the United Nations General Assembly on 28 June 2012, the International Day of Happiness aims to make people around the world realize the importance of happiness within their lives. Wishing everyone a very Happy International day of Happiness.

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Happy International day of Happiness


☀️ Do more of what makes you Happy. Start your day with Happiness and Gratitude. Established by the United Nations General Assembly on 28 June 2012, the International Day of Happiness aims to make people around the world realize the importance of happiness within their lives. Wishing everyone a very Happy International day of Happiness.

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Happy International day of Happiness


☀️ Do more of what makes you Happy. Start your day with Happiness and Gratitude. Established by the United Nations General Assembly on 28 June 2012, the International Day of Happiness aims to make people around the world realize the importance of happiness within their lives. Wishing everyone a very Happy International day of Happiness.

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Happy International day of Happiness


☀️ Do more of what makes you Happy. Start your day with Happiness and Gratitude. Established by the United Nations General Assembly on 28 June 2012, the International Day of Happiness aims to make people around the world realize the importance of happiness within their lives. Wishing everyone a very Happy International day of Happiness.

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International Day of Families

International Day of Families is celebrated on15 May. The aim of Family Day is to spread awareness about the benefits of families and the importance of it the overall growth and development of the world. The family system is the most essential element of social solidarity and serene society. International Family Day has been celebrated on 15th May every year since 1994. This year’s theme, "Families and Urbanization", aims to raise awareness of sustainable, family-friendly urban policies. Soul Studio LLC brings you vertices of SOULSARA, your community for mental wellness which offers support and helps empower you in overcoming the challenging situations of life so that you can be the best version of yourself. SOULSARA is your nurturing community that is non-judgemental, matriarchal, and inclusive. On this International Day of Families join the Community for Mental Wellness and be family with a Global community. Join us here: https://www.soulsara.soulstudio.world/ SOULWALA, a suite of Apps brings you Pcube Wellness- Your Personal Problem Processor and Colonostics to bring you to balance in a way to attain mind-body harmony.

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International Nurses Day

The International Day of the Nurses is celebrated to mark the Birth anniversary of the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale. It is celebrated to highlight the importance of nurses in the healthcare continuum and thank nurses for what they do. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) has declared the theme for this year as "Nursing the world to Health”.

Historically, as well as today, nurses are at the forefront of fighting epidemics and pandemics - providing high quality and respectful treatment and care. Nurses account for more than half of all the world’s health workers, yet there is an urgent shortage of nurses worldwide with 5.9 million more nurses still needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. For the people involved in challenging and stressful jobs such as the frontline workers SOUL STUDIO LLC with their verticals of SOULWALA bring you Pcube Wellness- Your Personal Problem Processor and Colornostics to bring you to balance in a way to attain mind body harmony.

SOULSARA is your community for mental wellness which offers support and helps empower you in overcoming the challenging situations of life so that you can be the best version of yourself.

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National Children's Mental Health Awareness Day

Raising a child can be challenging. Even under the best circumstances, their behaviors and emotions can change frequently and rapidly. Some changes are a part of the typical developmental phase but some behaviors may indicate a more serious problem in some children. Mental disorders can begin in childhood. Examples include anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, depression and other mood disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It's on this National Children's Mental Health awareness day that the taboo against mental wellness challenges must be broken. The team at SOULSTUDIO LLC with their verticals of SOULWALA and SOULSARA offers support and helps empower you in overcoming the challenging situations of life so that you can be the best version of yourself.

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Implementing Human-Centric Lighting

Glossary LED lightning The light-emitting diode (LED) is today's most energy-efficient and rapidly-developing lighting technology. LED is a highly energy-efficient lighting technology. LEDs are the size of a speck of pepper and can emit light in a range of colors. They emit light in a specific direction, reducing the need for reflectors and diffusers that can trap light and while emitting very little heat. LED lighting products typically last much longer than other lighting types. The concept of human-centric lighting emerged in the early 20th century. This concept arises from considering all the aspects of how lighting systems affect people. It started with the realization that the human eye perceives color and light levels and works as a photo-receptor. This led to the understanding that light affects human circadian rhythms. The concept of human-centric lighting incorporates this knowledge; the understanding light can affect people’s well-being, productivity, perception, mood, and comfort. Human-centric lighting is about designing artificial light in a way that it can address the emotional and biological effects of light in people. The centric concept to HCL is varying the quality of illumination from light fixtures to mimic or simulate the quality of natural light at different times of day¹. LEDs are the available light sources that are adjustable so that they can change according to light spectrum and light level. This puts LEDs in a unique position to be used in HCL, optimizing it and spreading its use. The most common application of HCL principles is air travel, as many of the newest commercial aircrafts feature LED interior lighting, usually with a purple hue. The cabin lighting also changes during a long flight, from purple or blue during boarding to warmer during meal times and a deep purple to encourage sleep. There is an intention to minimize jetlag by also simulating sunrise. In hospitals, nursing homes, and assisted living facilities, there is a great potential for the use of HCL as it is believed to help maintain the natural sleep cycle, reduce anxiety, promote healing, maintain alertness of nurses and caregivers, and improve visual acuity. These effects can be achieved by adjusting lighting and using HCL accordingly. Sophisticated HCL designs can even incorporate different zones with different lighting in the same facility. The uses of HCL do not stop here. Its concepts are being applied in schools, office environments, and even private homes. The implementation of HCL has the potential to change our lives for the better, and it is clear that its use will be widespread as more if its benefits are highlighted. 1. Hiebert, Yoelit. Implementing Human-Centric Lighting. EDN Network. [Online] Available from https://www.edn.com/implementing-human-centric-lighting/ [Accessed 28th October 2021] 2. Health Benefits of Human-Centric Lighting Using LEDs. WFM Media. [Online] Available from https://wfmmedia.com/health-benefits-of-human-centric-lighting-using-leds/ [Accessed 28th October 2021]

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The Impact of Light on the Outcomes in Healthcare Settings

Glossary Circadian Rhythms Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a 24-hour cycle. These natural processes respond primarily to light and dark and affect most living things, including animals, plants, and microbes. Chronobiology is the study of circadian rhythms. One example of a light-related circadian rhythm is sleeping at night and being awake during the day. Hyperbilirubinemia It is a condition in which there is too much bilirubin in the baby’s blood. When red blood cells break down, a substance called bilirubin is formed. Babies cannot easily get rid of the bilirubin, and it can build up in the blood and other tissues and fluids of your baby’s body. This is called hyperbilirubinemia. Because bilirubin has a pigment or coloring, it causes a yellowing of your baby’s skin and tissues. It is called jaundice. Light is critical to human functioning as it allows us to see things and perform activities. It is also essential as it affects human beings psychologically and physiologically. Several studies show the importance of light in reducing depression and fatigue, improving alertness, modulating circadian rhythms, and treating some conditions. Light in buildings, the presence of windows, and access to daylight have been studied, whether relating to the work environment or healthcare settings. Joseph (2006) researched the mechanisms by which light impacts human health by reviewing the literature on the subject and linking it to health outcomes in healthcare settings. The key findings and conclusions show light impacts human health by enabling humans to perform visual tasks, controlling the body’s circadian system, affecting mood and perception, and enabling several crucial chemical reactions in the body. The author mentions studies that show higher light levels are linked with better performance of complex visual tasks and that light requirements increase with age. It is possible to find these results in the referred paper¹. As mentioned above, light controls the body’s circadian system. Therefore, light impacts outcomes in healthcare settings by improving sleep and circadian rhythm, reducing depression among patients, shortening the length of stay in hospitals, lessening agitation in patients with dementia, easing pain, and helping the staff adjust to the night-shift work. The presence of windows that allow access to daylight in the workplace has been linked to greater satisfaction with the work environment. Exposure to light is critical for vitamin D metabolism in the human body and therefore essential to humans. This is why light exposure is also used as a treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Adequate exposure to light is vital for health and well-being, both for staff and patients, in health care settings. To meet these needs, a combination of daylight and electric light can and should be used. Natural light should be incorporated into the lighting design of a healthcare setting. This is, as mentioned, crucial to patients and staff, but also, it is light delivered at no cost and without doubt, it is the light form that people most prefer. However, in addition to natural light, electric light is necessary for all parts of a hospital. The goal should be to have efficient utilization of sunlight wherever it is possible. 1. Joseph, Anjali. Ph.D. The impact of Light on Outcomes in Healthcare Settings. The Center for Health Design. 2006 Find the article here https://www.healthdesign.org/sites/default/files/CHD_Issue_Paper2.pdf

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The Neurophysiology of Light: the Five Pathways

Glossary Hippocampus It is a brain structure consisting of two similar parts on each side of the brain, the hippocampi. The hippocampus is part of the limbic system. It has an important role in consolidating and organizing information from short-term memory to long-term memory and attaching emotions to these memories. The hippocampus is also associated with spatial memory and learning. Amygdala It is a cluster of almond-shaped cells in the base of the brain and is part of the limbic system. There are two groups of these cells, one on each side of the brain. These groups of cells, the amygdalae, are responsible for helping define and regulate emotions and behavior (including emotional responses like fear and anxiety). They are also responsible for preserving and processing memories, attaching emotions to the memories in a process called emotional remembrances. The amygdala is also responsible for decision-making. Since the 19th century, colored light has been used to achieve significant healing results. Colored light, when beamed into the eyes with a projector device, can activate repressed memories from childhood. This is what Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt presents in his book from 1995. One of the chapters in the book is called The Neurophysiology of Light - The Five Pathways, in which Dr. Klinghardt shows how colored light can be presented to the human body and achieve results concerning potential medicinal use. Neurophysiology considers that distinct color frequencies can reactivate synapses in the brain which were previously blocked. Thus, it is possible to reestablish a synaptic network and allow memories to be accessed by the conscious brain. This can be fundamental in the treatment of trauma. Memories connected to a physical or emotional trauma are helped by circuits in the limbic systems, especially in the hippocampus and amygdala. These memories can be accessed with the correct wavelength, for example, by using colored glasses. This effect can even be amplified by projecting light into the eyes with an instrument and modulating that light with flicker frequencies. Eye movement is another way of amplifying this effect and deepening the results. There are several methods of determining the correct color available nowadays, and the author¹ presents the most prominent ones and some effects colors can generate and the effect of color on emotions. The first pathway for light presented in this chapter is through the optic nerve that “travels from the retina, past the pituitary gland via the temporal lobe to the occipital lobe of the brain.” (Klinghadrt 2003) This is part of the visual system dedicated to informing the conscious brain of its surroundings without interpretation. The second pathway is connected to an additional nerve discovered not so long ago that leads from the retina to the hypothalamus. This explains the effects of color on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). Blue stimulates de anterior hypothalamus, which regulates the parasympathetic system. It means that colors from blue/green to violet will have a calming, sedating, digestion-activating, and sleep-inducing effect. Red stimulates the posterior hypothalamus, which regulates the sympathetic nervous system. This means that colors in the spectrum of magenta, red/orange, and yellow will stimulate, even have a provocative effect. Green is the color that mediates both systems. The third pathway is in a side branch of the nerve mentioned above that reaches the amygdala directly. The amygdala is the color-sensitive area of the limbic system and is highly responsive to the color the eyes are exposed to. This explains why treatment with color projection into the eye can profoundly affect the hormonal system, emotions, stress levels, sleep, brain function, and other human biochemistry and well-being aspects. The fourth pathway goes from the retina and follows the lower optic tract, which is not used for vision and reaches the transpedicular nucleus in the midbrain. This nucleus is also color-sensitive. This pathway is responsible for the circadian day-night rhythm and melatonin production. It has been given attention concerning the treatment of seasonal affective disorder. The fifth pathway mentioned by Klinghardt is still being studied and is connected to scientific hints that light can travel through the lymph and blood and the axonally inside the nerves. Albumin, one of the proteins able to be charged by colored light, can deliver these charges to tissue far away from the site of exposure. When entering through the outer layer of the skin, light can also affect pigments that then travel in the blood and lymph. This mechanism explains the effects of color-treatment via the skin. Lastly, this chapter approaches how eye movements stimulate the limbic system, especially the amygdala and hippocampus. This is important as Repeated eye movements facilitate the neurological connection between the conscious part of the brain and the deeply repressed conflicts, allowing for a better understanding of how these can be treated. Two very interesting ideas related to trauma and memories are present in Klinghardt’s study discussed here. Memories are color-coded. When the correct code is used, memories will surface. Additionally, eye movement is the secret code that opens the door to the unconscious. So, memories are color-coded, and there is also eye-movement coding of memories. 1. Dietrich Klinghardt, MD, PhD. The Neurophysiology of Light. The Five Pathways. Journal of Optometric Phototherapy, March 2003, pg.35-40 Find the chapter available in an article https://klinghardtinstitute.com/publications/the-neurophysiology-of-light-the-five-pathways/

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Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Intermediate Frequencies

Glossary Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) An EMF is a field produced by accelerating electric charges. An EMF is an invisible area of energy, often referred to as Radiation. They can be viewed as a combination of electric fields and magnetic fields. Differences in voltage create electric fields: the higher the voltage, the stronger will be the resultant field. Magnetic fields are created when electric current flows: the greater the current, the stronger the magnetic field. An electric field will exist even when there is no current flowing. If current flows, the magnetic field strength will vary with power consumption, but the electric field strength will be constant. Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) ELF electric and magnetic fields include the lower part of the electromagnetic spectrum of frequency, from 0 and 300 Hz¹. This includes the electricity supply and power lines. Radio Frequency (RF) It is the radio spectrum of frequencies ranging from around 10 MHz to 300GHz¹. Objects like microwave ovens, televisions, radios, and other broadcasting devices, including mobile phones, generate this kind of frequency. Intermediate Frequency (IF) It refers to the region of the EMF spectrum between the ELF and RF ranges, which is 300 Hz to 10 MHz. Fewer devices produce this of frequency, as compared to the other two mentioned. Exposure to human-made electromagnetic fields (EMF) has increased over the past century. The widespread use of EMF sources has been accompanied by public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. Having in mind the protection of public health, the World Health Organization has established the International EMF Project to access the scientific evidence of possible health effects of EMF in the frequency of 0 Hz to 300 GHz. This project encourages research to fill in gaps in knowledge in the hopes of better understanding the effects of EMF exposure. One of the gaps identified by the International EMF Project was the possible effects of Intermediate Frequency (IF) on public health. IF sources can be found in various settings: Industry: for example, in plasma and induction heaters, broadcast and communications emitters General Public: in domestic induction cookers, proximity readers, electronic article surveillance systems and other anti-theft devices, computer monitors, televisions, and others Hospitals: MRI systems, electromagnetic nerve stimulators, electro-surgical units, and other devices for medical treatment Military: Power units, submarine communication transmitters, and high frequency (HF) transmitters. Apart from some medical devices, in others, the levels of human exposure fall below the recommendation. The exceptions are mentioned by the International EMF Project in the Information Sheet¹. In this document, a list of the effects of EMF in the human body is presented. Still, it is important to remember that External IF fields can induce these effects inside the human body but only at field strengths many times higher than typical environmental levels. There are concerns about the possible adverse health effects of IF fields, from computer monitors and televisions. Therefore, the Information Sheet presents several findings that address this issue. Overall, it is relevant to highlight that studies into IF exposure show that it does not constitute a threat to human health and that extremely weak IF fields do not interfere with reproductive processes or pregnancy outcomes. However, there was a significant health hazard due to IF sources mentioned, EMF produced by electronic anti-theft systems and their interference with implanted electronic medical devices such as pacemakers or neurological stimulators. Several laboratory studies have been conducted, and overall, those have not identified clear evidence of increased malformations caused by exposure to IF. The scientific evidence is not convincing that adverse health effects occur from exposure to IF fields usually found in the living and working environment. The scientific evidence does not suggest any health risk from IF fields at exposures when below guideline levels. However, there is a need for more high-quality research to address uncertainties in current knowledge. The Sheet suggests several key areas where these studies should focus. The WHO's International EMF Project keeps reviewing research results, conducting risk assessments of EMF exposure, and developing information materials to uphold a worldwide attempt to harmonize approaches to developing EMF exposure standards. 1. Definition by WHO: Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Intermediate Frequencies (IF). World Health Organization. 2005 Find the article here: http://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/facts/intermediatefrequencies_infosheet.pdf The International EMF Project https://www.who.int/initiatives/the-international-emf-project

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Selective photobiomodulation for emotion regulation: model-based dosimetry study

Glossary Photobiomodulation PBM is the term used to describe the mechanistic/scientific basis for this photonic specialty and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) as the term for its therapeutic application. Photobiomodulation (PBM) modifies laser irradiation, monochromatic light, hot color light such as red, orange, or yellow, or cold color light such as green, blue, or violet on the skin biosystems. Dosimetry Radiation dosimetry in the fields of health physics and radiation protection is the measurement, calculation, and assessment of the ionizing radiation dose absorbed by an object, usually the human body. A dosimeter is designed to monitor exposure and serve as a tool to alert an individual if radiation dose readings exceed unhealthy levels of radiation exposure Light-emitting Diode Also known as LED, it is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it. The color of the light is determined by the energy required for electrons to cross the band gap f the semiconductor. Brain photobiomodulation (PBM) with near-infrared (NIR) and red light is a growing field of research. The transcranial photobiomodulation (t-PBM) technique is a promising approach for the treatment of a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including disorders characterized by poor regulation of emotion such as major depressive disorder (MDD). There already are over-the-counter diodes (LEDs), as well as in-office laser devices being used for transcranial photobiomodulation (t-PBM) in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. It is expected that the use of these t-PBM devices will increase as several studies to test the efficacy and tolerability of t-PBM for neuropsychiatric disorders are being conducted. Some of those studies being concluded are targeting the efficacy for treating major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, dementia, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) with posttraumatic stress disorder. Preliminary clinical evidence on the efficacy of t-PBM for neuropsychiatric disorders is quite encouraging; however, as exemplified by the studies on t-PBM for affective disorders, there are methodological limitations preventing definite conclusions. This is due to the fact that different methodologies are being applied and further research is necessary. Nevertheless, the authors Cassano P, Tran AP, Katnani H, et al. (2019) present results towards the possibility of using NIR light delivered transcranially or intranasally with positive outcomes. Their results also suggest that typical t-PBM doses are suboptimal for neuromodulation of the entire surface of target brain regions. This means repeated sessions of t-PBM or greater doses per session or larger treatment windows might be needed to achieve favorable clinical outcomes. Finally, intranasal PBM might be a promising alternative to t-PBM to achieve successful results. Cassano P, Tran AP, Katnani H, et al. Selective photobiomodulation for emotion regulation: model-based dosimetry study. Neurophotonics. 2019;6(1):015004. doi:10.1117/1.NPh.6.1.015004 Find this article here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366475/

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A New Approach to Understanding the Impact of Circadian Disruption on Human Health

Glossary Circadian Rhythms Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a 24-hour cycle. These natural processes respond primarily to light and dark and affect most living things, including animals, plants, and microbes. Chronobiology is the study of circadian rhythms. One example of a light-related circadian rhythm is sleeping at night and being awake during the day. Biological Clock Biological clocks are organisms’ natural timing devices, regulating the cycle of circadian rhythms. They’re composed of specific molecules that are proteins that interact with cells throughout the body. Nearly every tissue and organ contain biological clocks. In humans, the biological clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus of the brain. As the earth rotates, there are 24-hour patterns of light and dark, and in response to these regular variations to the natural light-dark cycle, many species have developed inner circadian rhythms that repeat approximately every 24 hours. The timing of the circadian clock genes is orchestrated by a master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus of the brain. This master clock provides precise time cues for the body to regulate the various physiological, hormonal, and behavioral circadian patterns. However, the SCN can become asynchronous, for example, in total darkness as the clock is slightly longer than 24 hours. The synchrony is maintained with the external world, as a light-dark pattern incident on the retina resets the timing of the SCN. This makes it possible for us to entrain our biological functions to the local environment when traveling across time zones. Lack of synchrony of the circadian rhythms leads to sleep disruption, problems in digestion, and alertness. Disruptions of the synchrony have been associated with a wide variety of illnesses, such as cardiovascular anomalies and accelerated cancerous tumor growth, so much so that the World Health Organization has identified rotating shift work (which causes these disruptions) as a probable cause of cancer. In addition to this, other disorders like diabetes and obesity have been associated with shift work, suggesting a role for circadian disruption in the development and progression of diseases again. Authors Rea, M. S., Bierman, A., Figueiro, M. G., & Bullough, J. D. (2008) have conducted thorough research into understanding the impact of circadian disruption on human health. By analyzing day-shift nurses and rotating-shift nurses and conducting research on night rodents, and presenting data from the Daysimeter, a device for simultaneously recording light-dark and activity-rest data in humans, these authors presented crucial original data. This study is a vital contribution to a new framework for studying circadian disruption and entrainment on human health, emphasizing the relationship between circadian disruption and disorders such as breast cancer, obesity, and sleep disorders. It is important to be able to have models that allow a quantitative definition of the degree of light stimuli and their influence on the circadian clock. Furthermore, there is the possibility of measuring the synchrony between light-dark and activity-rest patterns in actual human living environments using tools used by these authors, like the Daysimeter. Lastly, it is also essential to measure the degree of circadian disruption/ entrainment. All this research helped accelerate the understanding of the role of circadian disruption on human health. This has allowed for the development of medical treatments of these illnesses with light and with drugs. However, it is essential that the study and further understanding of circadian entrainment and disruption on an individual basis continue so each person can be treated with the appropriate light-dark exposure and, if necessary, with the proper pharmaceutical assistance. A New Approach to Understanding the Impact of Circadian Disruption on Human Health. Mark S Rea, Mariana G. Figueiro. 2008. Find this article here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430544/

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Is light-emitting diode phototherapy (LED-LLLT) really effective?

Glossary Low-Level Light/Laser Therapy LLLT is a non-invasive light source treatment that generates a single wavelength of light. It emits no heat, sound, or vibration. It is also called photobiology or biostimulation. Light-emitting Diode Also known as LED, it is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it. The color of the light is determined by the energy required for electrons to cross the band gap f the semiconductor. Photobiomodulation PBM is the term used to describe the mechanistic/scientific basis for this photonic specialty and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) as the term for its therapeutic application. Photobiomodulation (PBM) modifies laser irradiation, monochromatic light, hot color light such as red, orange, or yellow, or cold color light such as green, blue, or violet on the skin biosystems. High-level laser treatment (HLLT) is when high levels of incident laser power are used to destroy a target deliberately. It is used in many surgical fields, the most common being dermatology and aesthetic or plastic surgery. On the other hand, when a laser or other appropriate light source is used at low incident levels, the energy is not lost but absorbed, causing photoactivation of the target cells and some kind of change in their associated activity. In clinical terms, this low-level laser therapy is called LLLT and was termed in 1988 by Ohshiro and Calderhead¹ with ‘photobiomodulation’ or ‘photoactivation’ - referring to the activity at a cellular and molecular level. LLLT has attracted attention in many clinical fields, and a new generation of light-emitting diodes (LED) has been developed to irradiate large targets. The first main application of LLLT has been in pain control, by accelerating wounds, both traumatic and result of illness, inflammatory acne, and application of skin rejuvenation. As present by Kim, W. S., & Calderhead, R. G. (2011), LED-LLLT is supported by reported efficacy at a cellular and subcellular level. The authors bring to evidence the improved blood flow and neovascularization associated with the wavelengths used in phototherapy. The clinical applications of this treatment include non-healing wounds that heal faster and “normal” wounds healing better. Another great application that is referred to concerns pain and how it is reduced, including postoperative pain, edema, and many types of inflammation. In fact, a very good efficacy of LED phototherapy in pain treatment is significantly highlighted by the authors and overall recognized. LED phototherapy has now been well-proven to work and is reported to be effective in a large variety of clinical indications such as pain attenuation, wound healing, skin rejuvenation, some viral diseases, allergic rhinitis, other allergy-related conditions, and others. The authors conclude that “Provided an LED phototherapy system has the correct wavelength for the target cells, delivers an appropriate power density and an adequate energy density, then it will be at least partly, if not significantly, effective.”. The use of LED-LLLT is effective, but it is also already being used with a vast number of surgical and non-surgical applications. As it is further studied and developed, this will only increase. 1. Ohshiro T, Calderhead RG: Low Level Laser Therapy: a Practical Introduction. 1988. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK 2. Kim, W. S., & Calderhead, R. G. (2011). Is light-emitting diode phototherapy (LED-LLLT) really effective?. Laser therapy, 20(3), 205–215. https://doi.org/10.5978/islsm.20.205 Find this article here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3799034/

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Biophilic Design Patterns: Emerging Nature-Based Parameters for Health and Well-Being

Glossary Biophilia This term refers to a hypothetical human tendency to interact or be closely associated with other forms of life in nature. It is a desire or tendency to commune with nature. Biophilic Design ​It is a concept where design seeks to connect our inherent need to affiliate with nature in the modern built environment. It developed as an extension of the theory of biophilia and is used within the building industry to increase occupant connectivity to the natural environment. Prospect-Refuge Theory The theory of “prospect and refuge” seeks to describe why certain environments feel secure and thereby meet basic human psychological needs. Environments that meet such needs will often provide people with the capacity to observe (prospect) without being seen (refuge). Biophilia is the deep-seated need and instinct to seek connections with nature. It helps explain why nature can enhance our creativity, why certain elements of nature like crashing waves of crackling fires captivate us and others like shadows may instill fear, and why outdoor activities like gardening or a walk in the park can have restorative effects. As a hypothesis, it may also help explain why some urban parks are preferred to others. Research into understanding the aspects of nature most have an impact on our satisfaction has been done for decades. The important step now is to go from the research to the application in an effective way, one that enhances health and well-being. Authors O. Ryan et al., 2014 present a deep and vital review and draw some conclusions of the growing body of work of research and emerging design parameters being created. This has future research in mind, so there can be an evolving understanding of biophilic design patterns and try to capture the positive psychophysiological and cognitive benefits of biophilia in design intervention. The authors focused on studying patterns of biophilic design that had shown in previous research some degree of impact in our cognitive capacity and to enhance and maintain a healthy life experience through the connection with nature. What they came to conclude is that biophilic design patterns have the potential to shift the conversation on environmental quality, to re-position it towards giving individual’s needs equal consideration to the conventional parameters for building performance that has, throughout history, excluded health and well-being. The intent is that we may “better capture the benefits afforded by biophilia in our design interventions.” (O. Ryan et al., 2014) This review shows that the built environment can have different effects on an individual, positive, neutral, or negative. Responses to the experience of exposure to biophilic design patterns may vary according to several factors such as the user’s health baseline, the frequency or duration of the experience, socio-cultural norms and expectation, the user’s experience up to that point, and how the individual perceives and processes the experience. Despite that variability, widespread accessibility to and implementation of biophilic design patterns could help change the focus of the design process to the individual while capturing the economic benefits of nature in the built environment. What is certain is that a great number of people continue shifting to urban settings, and as that happens, the need for biophilic design will become stronger. Ryan, Catherine O., et al. "Biophilic Design Patterns: Emerging Nature-Based Parameters for Health and Well-Being in the Built Environment." Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 8, issue 2 (2014): 62-76. Find this article here https://www.archnet.org/publications/9767

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Light Therapy and Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementia

Glossary Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementia ADRD is a mental disorder with behavioral symptoms such as disturbed sleep-wake patterns, nocturnal wandering, agitation, and physical or verbal abuse. Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (AD/ADRD) are debilitating conditions that impair memory, thought processes, and functioning, primarily among older adults. The effects of these diseases can be devastating, both for individuals afflicted with AD/ADRD and for their families. Circadian Rhythms Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a 24-hour cycle. These natural processes respond primarily to light and dark and affect most living things, including animals, plants, and microbes. Chronobiology is the study of circadian rhythms. One example of a light-related circadian rhythm is sleeping at night and being awake during the day. Biological Clock Biological clocks are organisms’ natural timing devices, regulating the cycle of circadian rhythms. They’re composed of specific molecules that are proteins that interact with cells throughout the body. Nearly every tissue and organ contain biological clocks. In humans, the biological clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus of the brain. Light Therapy It is a therapy to treat conditions by exposure to artificial light. Light therapy is thought to affect brain chemicals linked to mood and sleep, easing symptoms for several disorders, such as sleep disorders, seasonal affective disorder, and even some types of depression Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementia (ADRD) is a mental disorder with several behavioral symptoms such as disturbed sleep-wake patterns, nocturnal wandering, agitation, and physical or verbal abuse are among the most prevalent reasons why individuals with ADRD transition to more controlled environments. Sleep disturbances are common in persons with ADRD, resulting in a negative impact on the daytime function of the affected person and on the wellbeing of caregivers. Because of this, research has aimed at treating symptoms, particularly with non-pharmacological options due to a low risk of side effects. Most species on the planet generate circadian rhythms, and in mammals, these are regulated by a biological clock located in the brain, more precisely, in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus of the brain. The biological clock in humans has a natural period slightly greater than 24hours and receives environmental cues from external factors, such as light/dark cycles (reaching the back of the eye), social activities, and mealtimes. All these factors can reset and synchronize the clock daily, and as diurnal species, humans who are synchronized to the 24-hour solar day are typically awake during daytime hours and asleep during nighttime hours. The human circadian rhythm can be altered, phase advance or phase delay by light, depending on when it is applied. As explained in Hanford and Figueiro. 2013, studies show there is reduced neuronal activity in the SCN of older people after the age of 80 and reduced circadian rhythm amplitude after 50. At the same time, some changes in the amplitude and timing of melatonin and core body temperature may happen in older adults which can output rhythms of the biological clock. Melatonin is the hormone produced at night and in darkness, and it is believed to act as a timing messenger to the body and indicate to cells that it is circadian night. Therefore, changes in the melatonin rhythms can lead to the deterioration of the functioning biological clock. Sleep disturbances are even more common among people with ADRD. There is an increased tendency to fall asleep during the daytime and increased time awake during nighttime. Sleep disturbances eventually become too burdensome for familial caregivers and are the leading cause of ADRD institutionalization. Authors Hanford and Figueiro (2013) present important research and come to some essential and relevant conclusions to understand and analyze the effectiveness of light therapy in improving sleep, depression, and agitation in older adults with ADRD. Light therapy has been shown to enhance rest and activity rhythms as well as sleep efficiency with ADRD in some studies. One crucial point is that additional research is needed to test the true effectiveness of a 24-hour lighting scheme presented in the paper (2013). On a future note, it is important to develop “quantitative lighting solutions based upon basic principles of circadian regulation are designed while still paying attention to maintaining good vision and safety while awake and minimizing sleep disruption at night.” (Hanford and Figueiro, 2013) Light Therapy and Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementia: Past, Present, and Future. Nicholas Hanford and Mariana Figueiro. 2013. Find this article here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3553247/

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